This genuine socketed iron cavalry lance spearhead comes from the ancient Greek Macedonian Empire, ruled by Phillip II of Macedon and later his son, Alexander the Great. This spear was originally found in the region of ancient Thrace on the Balkan Peninsula, part of the ancient Greek Macedonian kingdom in the 4th century B.C.. Spearheads like these were employed by the ancient Greek Macedonian cavalry on conquests by noted commanders such as Phillip II and his son, Alexander the Great, as they expanded their empire from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
This excellent specimen is complete which is rare for ancient iron. Weapons of this ancient empire are uncommon and this one of very few we have to offer.
This artifact has been professionally cleaned and conserved in our lab, being treated with a special sealer for ancient metal preservation. The patina shows beautiful traits only found in authentic ancient weapons. It is a patina like this that the finest ancient bronzes are prized for and it is a patina like this that brings a premium in price and value of the specimen. No active bronze disease. Bronze disease can be a problem in bronze artifacts and untreated, it can literally eat away an artifact over a short time of a matter of years and turn the piece to powder.
WARNING: There is an increasing number of fake Near Eastern (Luristan) bronze weapons on the market. As fine quality intact, original specimens become more scarce and techniques have become more sophisticated to fake these weapons. We have personally handled numerous extremely well-done fakes with extremely convincing patinas. The degree to which the fakers have been able to replicate patina to disguise their work requires an expert examination by highly experienced individuals. It is common to find very reasonably priced weapons that are made up of part original and part modern components or wholly modern pieces displaying elaborate artificial patinas. All purchases should include from the dealer a written guarantee of authenticity with unconditional and lifetime return policies regarding such guarantee.
ANCIENT MACEDONIAN CAVALRY
The "Companion" cavalry were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army originating under king Philip II of Macedon. The cavalry achieved their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and have been regarded as the first or among the first shock cavalry used in Europe. Chosen Companions, or Hetairoi, formed the elite guard of the king.
The Companions probably constituted the first real shock cavalry in history, able to conduct charges against massed infantry. The cavalry, even when heavily armored, would most usually be equipped with javelins and would avoid melee. In battle, the Companion cavarly would take part in a hammer and anvil tactic. The Companion cavalry would be used as a hammer, in conjunction with the Macedonian phalanx-based infantry, which acted as their anvil. The phalanx would pin the enemy in place, while the Companion cavalry would attack the enemy on the flank or from behind. In battle, Alexander the Great personally led the charge at the head of the royal squadron of the Companion cavalry, usually in a wedge formation.
Companion cavalry would ride the best horses, and receive the best weaponry available. In Alexander's day, each carried a xyston which was a long thrusting spear, and wore a bronze muscle cuirass or linothorax, shoulder guards and Boeotian helmets, but bore no shield. A kopis (curved slashing sword) or xiphos (cut and thrust sword) was also carried for close combat, should the xyston spear break.
Macedonia, or Macedon, was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. Home to the ancient Macedonians, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, and bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south.
Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, and briefly subordinate to Achaemenid Persia. During the reign of the Argead king Philip II (359–336 BC), Macedonia subdued mainland Greece and Thrace through conquest and diplomacy. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. Philip II's son, Alexander the Great, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece when he destroyed Thebes after the city revolted. During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of Ancient Greek civilization. Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy, engineering, and science spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, tutor to Alexander, whose writings became a keystone of Western philosophy.